申博sunbet网站,连词——英语中的“桥梁”和“黏合剂”

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申博sunbet网站,连词——英语中的“桥梁”和“黏合剂”

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连词犹如“桥梁”和“黏合剂”,可以避免文章结构松散、层次不明、表达不清等弊端。恰当地使用连词可使句与句之间结构紧凑,段落之间过渡自然。根据意思和作用的不同,连词可以分为以下十五类:

1. 不能准确理解和把握英语中连词的作用

英语与汉语在句子结构方面最基本的差异是:汉语句子重意合,英语句子重形合。也就是说,汉语并不追求形式上的完整,往往只求达意;而英语句法重视句子结构形式的完整和逻辑上的合理。具体来讲,在英语中,两个简单句之间不能用逗号分开,要用连词连接起来,或者使它们单独成句子。例如:

误:we came to the crossroads, a young man and a girl came up, stopped us.

正:when we came to the crossroads, a young man and a girl came up and stopped us.

正:we came to the crossroads. a young man and a girl came up and stopped us.

析:显然误句是按照汉语思维进行组句的。纠正时既可使用连词连接两句,也可使前后两部分单独成句。另外,同一个句子中,两个并列的动词之间也必须用连词。

2. 从属连词与并列连词同时使用

众所周知,并列连词and, but, or, so等用来引导并列句,从属连词用来引导各种从句。在使用连词时,注意不要将though / although和but, because / since / as和so同时用在一个句子中。例如:

误:though he caught a cold, but he still went to school.

正:though he caught a cold, he still went to school.

正:he caught a cold, but he still went to school.

3. 混淆介词和连词

由于受汉语干扰,容易错把一些介词当作连词。主要有以下几种情形:

(1)表示“随着”时,引导从句要用as,不能用with,因为with是介词。如若使用with,应当用with的复合结构来表示。例如:

误:with time went on, einstein's theory proved to be true.

正:as time went on, einstein's theory proved to be true.

正:with time going on, einstein's theory proved to be true.

(2)表示“当……时候”时,从句的引导词要用when或while,不能用during,因为during是介词。例如:

误:during you are away, i'll be kind to him.

正:when you are away, i'll be kind to him.

(3)表示“尽管”时,引导从句要用though / although,不能用in spite of,因为in spite of后面不能跟从句。例如:

误:inspite of the working conditions were poor, they fulfilled the task ahead of time.

正:though the working conditions were poor, they fulfilled the task ahead of time.

正:inspite of the poor working conditions, they fulfilled the task ahead of time.

4. 不能正确使用关联连词

关联连词是意义相关的一组连词,使用时应注意匹配一致。

1)误:you can take either this one and that one.

正:you can take either this one or that one.

析:这里either和or是意义相关的一组连词,故应将and改为or。

2)误:he was not only impressed by the chinese doctors' skill, but by their devotion to the patient.

正:he was impressed not only by the chinese doctors' skill, but by their devotion to the patient.

析:not only ... but (also)用来连接两个并列成分,故应将题干中的not only置于impressed之后。

5. 对部分特殊连词缺乏了解

英语中有一部分名词短语及副词可用作连词,这种由于词性发生转化而被使用的连词对同学们会有极大的迷惑性,学习时应特别注意掌握。如由名词短语转化的连词:the moment, the minute, the instant, the second, the first / last time, each / every time等;由副词转化来的连词有:immediately, directly, instantly等。

1)误:iliked her for the first time i met her.

正: i liked her the first time i met her.

析:此处the first time用作连词,用来引导时间状语从句,此时其前无须再加介词for.

2)误:every time when i went to her house, she was out.

正: every time i went to her house, she was out.

析:every time可以用作从属连词,引导时间状语从句,故应去掉when。

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